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Shaper is a reciprocating type machine tool which is primarily intended to produce flat surfaces. The surfaces may be horizontal, vertical on inclined. This machine involves the use of a single point cutting tool similar to a tool used in lathe machine.
The intermediate gear unit may comprise either a spur gear and a planetary gear assembly, or a pair of planetary gear assemblies. Change of rotation within the gear unit can be effected easily.
Spur gear drive comprising a driven gear and driving gear wherein the driving gear has double crowned teeth defined as (i) an envelope to a family of surfaces generated by a skew or straight rack-cutter having a parabolic tooth profile in normal section and then (ii) as an envelope to a family of tool surfaces that are generated while the tool performs a plunging motion with respect to the driving gear in the direction of the shortest distance between the axes of rotation of the tool and the driving gear and tool plunging motion is varied by a parabolic function, whose variable is displacement of the tool in a direction parallel to the rotational axis of the driving gear.
The dual direction gear mechanism implemented in shaper machine in this paper. There is used sun gear, ring gear and plant gear. Ring gear and sun gear is meshed and the plant gear is meshed in sun gear. The plant and sun gear is connected with electrical motor. The motor is rotating at clock wise direction the ring and sun gear also rotating clock wise direction. The ring gear is having 50 teeth in 1800 and sun gear is having 14 teeth in 1450 but plant gear is having 28 teeth in 3600.This plant gear is rotated by ring and plant gear at so we get front and backward direction and also we get dual direction ram of the shaper machine.
INVENTION OF SHAPER MACHINE
Roe (1916) credits James Nasmyth with the invention of the shaper in 1836. Shapers were very common in industrial production from the mid-19th century through the mid-20th. In current industrial practice, shapers have been largely superseded by other machine tools (especially of the CNC type), including milling machines, grinding machines, and broaching machines. But the basic function of a shaper is still sound; tooling for them is minimal and very cheap to reproduce; and they are simple and robust in construction, making their repair and upkeep easily achievable. Thus they are still popular in many machine shops, from jobbing shops or repair shops to tool and die shops, where only one or a few pieces are required to be produced and the alternative methods are cost- or tooling-intensive. They also have considerable retro appeal too many hobbyist machinists, who are happy to obtain a used shaper or, in some cases, even to build a new one from scratch.
Before the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, hand tools were used to cut and shape materials for the production of goods such as cooking utensils, wagons, ships, furniture, and other products. After the advent of the steam engine, material goods were produced by power-driven machines that could only be manufactured by machine tools. Machine tools (capable of producing dimensionally accurate parts in large quantities) and jigs and fixtures (for holding the work and guiding the tool) were the indispensable innovations that made mass production and interchangeable realities in the 19th century
The most common use is to machine straight, flat surfaces but with ingenuity and some accessories a wide range of work can be done. Other examples of its use are:
- The project performs well under all conditions and enables to improve the operational efficiency. It also meets all the reqirements specified by the user.
- This project has been a great learning process for us to climb the greater heights of mechanical world. The experience that we have earned from this project will surely stand in good stead in my future.
- Once again we thank whole – heartedly all those who helped to complete the project work.
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