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GPS technology is a great boon to anyone who has the need to navigate either great or small distances. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a burgeoning technology, which provides unequalled accuracy and flexibility of positioning for navigation, surveying and GIS data capture. This wonderful navigation technology was actually first available for government use back in the late 1970s. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a radio based navigation system that gives three dimensional coverage of the Earth, 24 hours a day in any weather conditions throughout the world. The technology seems to be beneficiary to the GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM user community in terms of obtaining accurate data up-to about 100 meters for navigation, meter-level for mapping, and down to millimeter level for geodetic positioning. The GPS technology has tremendous amount of applications in Geographical Information System (GIS) data collection, surveying, and mapping.
The U.S. Air Force launched the first GPS satellite in early 1978. There are now at least 24 satellites orbiting the earth at an altitude of about 11,000 nautical miles. The high altitude insures that the satellite orbits are stable, precise and predictable, and that the satellites’ motion through space is not affected by atmospheric drag. These 24 satellites make up a full GPS constellation. The satellites orbit the Earth every 12 hours at approximately 12,000 miles above the Earth. There are four satellites in each of 6 orbital planes. Each plane is inclined 55 degrees relative to the equator, which means that satellites cross the equator tilted at a 55 degree angle. The system is designed to maintain full operational capability even if two of the 24 satellites fail.
BASIC CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGIES
The space segment:
The GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM satellites control themselves, the control system, operated by the U.S. military, and the user segment, which includes both military and civilian users and their GPS equipment. The GPS system is passive, meaning that the satellites continuously transmit information towards the Earth. If someone has a GPS receiver they can receive the signal at no cost. The information is transmitted on two frequencies: L1 (1575.42 MHz), and L2 (1227.60 MHz).
These frequencies are called carrier waves because they are used primarily to carry information to GPS receivers. The more information a receiver measures the more expensive the unit, and the more functions it will perform with greater accuracy. When one receiver is tracking satellites and obtaining position data, the information received has traveled over 12,000 miles and has been distorted by numerous atmospheric factors. This results in accuracy of about 25 meters. Moreover, the department of Defense (the agency running the GPS) degrades receiver accuracy by telling the satellites to transmit slightly inaccurate information.
This intentional distortion of the signal is called Selective Availability (SA). With SA turned on and one receiver is used, the greatest accuracy a user can expect is 100 meters. To improve the accuracy of GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM , differential, or Relative Positioning can be employed. If two or more receivers are used to track the same satellites, and one is in a known position, many of the errors of SA can be reduced, and in some cases eliminated. Differential data can be accomplished using common code or carrier data (L1 or L2). The most accurate systems use differential data from a GPS base station that continually tracks twelve satellites and transmits the differential data to remote units using a radio link. With these systems centimeter accuracy and real-time navigation is possible.
All of these features make it a very desirable and useful technology for a mired of activities including Search and Rescue, Aviation and Nautical navigation, hiking, hunting, camping, fishing, and many more. All of these various GPS users have unique needs, which require different levels of understanding and skill in using this technology.
The Russian government has developed a system, similar to GPS, called GLONASS. The first GLONASS satellite launch was in October 1982. The full constellation consists of 24 satellites in 3 orbit planes, which have a 64.8 degree inclination to the earth’s equator. The GLONASS system now consists of 12 healthy satellites. GLONASS uses the same code for each satellite and many frequencies, whereas GPS which uses two frequencies and a different code for each satellite. Galileo is Europe’s contribution to the next generation Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS).
Unlike GPS, which is funded by the public sector and operated by the U.S. Air Force, Galileo will be a civil-controlled system that draws on both public and private sectors for funding. The service will be free at the point of use, but a range of chargeable services with additional features will also be offered. These additional features would include improved reception, accuracy and availability. Design of the Galileo system is being finalised and the delivery of initial services is targeted for 2008.
GEO-POSITIONING – BASIC CONCEPTS:
By positioning we understand the determination of stationary or moving objects. These can be determined as follows:
- In relation to a well-defined coordinate system, usually by three coordinate values and four measurements.
- In relation to other point, taking one point as the origin of a local coordinate system. The first mode of positioning is known as point positioning, the second as relative positioning. If the object to be positioned is stationary, we term it as static positioning. When the object is moving, we call it kinematic positioning. Usually, the static positioning is used is surveying and the kinematic position in navigation.
GPS – COMPONENTS AND BASIC FACTS
The GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM uses satellites and computers to compute positions anywhere on earth. The GPS is based on satellite ranging. That means the position on the earth is determined by measuring the distance from a group of satellites in space. The basic principles behind GPS are really simple, even though the system employs some of the most high-tech equipment ever developed. In order to understand GPS basics, the system can be categorized into-
FIVE logical Steps:
- Triangulation from the satellite is the basis of the system.
- To triangulate, the GPS measures the distance using the travel time of the radio message.
- To measure travel time, the GPS need a very accurate accurate.
- Once the distance to a satellite is known, then we need to know where the satellite is in space.
- As the GPS signal travels through the ionosphere and the earth’s atmosphere, the signal is delayed .
To compute a positions in three dimensions. We need to have four satellite measurements. The GPS uses a trigonometric approach to calculate the positions, The GPS satellites are so high up that their orbits are very predictable and each of the satellites is equipped with a very accurate atomic clock.
- The Space Segment:
The Space Segment consists of the Constellation of NAVASTAR earth orbiting satellites. The current Defense Department plan calls for a full constellation of 24 Block II satellites (21 operational and 3 in-orbit spares). Each satellite contains four precise atomic clocks (Rubidium and Cesium standards) and has a microprocessor on board for limited self-monitoring and data processing.
- Satellite orbits.
There are four satellites in each of 6 orbital planes. Each plane is
inclined 55 degrees relative to the equator, which means that satellites cross the equator tilted at a 55 degree angle. The system is designed to maintain full operational capability even if two of the 24 satellites fail. They orbit at altitudes of about 12000, miles each, with orbital periods of 12 sidereal hours (i.e., determined by or from the stars), or approximately one half of the earth’s periods, approximately 12 hours of 3-D position fixes. The satellites are equipped with thrusters, which can be used to maintain or modify their orbits. The next block of satellites is called Block IIR, and they will provide improved reliability and have a capacity of ranging between satellites, which will increase the orbital accuracy.
- Satellite Signals:
GPS satellites continuously broadcast satellite position and timing data via radio signals on two frequencies: L1 (1575.42 MHz), and L2 (1227.60 MHz). These frequencies are called carrier waves because they are used primarily to carry information to GPS receivers. The radio signals travel at the speed of light (186,000 miles per second) and take approximately 6/100ths of a second to reach the earth. The satellite signals require a direct line to GPS receivers and cannot penetrate water, soil, walls or other obstacles.
For example, heavy forest canopy causes interference, making it difficult, if not impossible, to compute positions. In canyons (and “urban canyons” in cities) GPS signals are blocked by mountain ranges or buildings. If you place your hand over a GPS receiver antenna, it will stop computing positions. Two kinds of code are broadcast on the L1 frequency (C/A code and Pcode). C/A (Coarse Acquisition) code is available to civilian GPS users and provides Standard Positioning Service (SPS). Using the Standard Positioning Service one can achieve 15 meter horizontal accuracy 95% of the time. This means that 95% of the time, the coordinates you read from your GPS receiver display will be within 15 meters of your true position on the earth. P (Precise) code is broadcast on both the L1 and L2 frequencies.
P code, used for the Precise Positioning Service (PPS) is available only to the military. Using P code on both frequencies, a military receiver can achieve better accuracy than civilian receivers. Additional techniques can increase the accuracy of both C/A code and P code GPS receivers.
- The User Segment:
The user segment is a total user and supplier community, both civilian and military. The User Segment consists of all earth-based GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM receivers. Receivers vary greatly in size and complexity, though the basic design is rather simple. The typical receiver is composed of an antenna and preamplifier, radio signal microprocessor, control and display device, data recording unit, and power supply.
The GPS receiver decodes the timing signals from the ‘visible’ satellites (four or more) and, having calculated their distances, computes its own latitude, longitude, elevation, and time. This is a continuous process and generally the position is updated on a second-by-second basis, output to the receiver display device and, if the receiver display device and, if the receiver provides data capture capabilities, stored by the receiver-logging unit.
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM POSITIONING TYPES:
- Absolute Positioning:
The mode of positioning relies upon a single receiver station. It is also referred to as ‘stand-alone’ GPS, because, unlike differential positioning, ranging is carried out strictly between the satellite and the receiver station, not on a ground-based reference station that assists with the computation of error corrections. As a result, the positions derived in absolute mode are subject to the unmitigated errors inherent in satellite positioning. Overall accuracy of absolute positioning is considered to be no greater than 50 meters at best by Ackroyd and Lorimer and to be + 100 meter accuracy by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
- Differential Positioning:
Relative or Differential GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM carries the triangulation principles one step further, with a second receiver at a known reference point. To further facilitate determination of a point’s position, relative to the known earth surface point, this configuration demands collection of an error- correcting message from the reference receiver. Differential-mode positioning relies upon an established control point.
The reference station is placed on the control point, a triangulated position, the control point coordinate. This allows for a correction factor to be calculated and applied to other moving GPS units used in the same area and in the same time series. Inaccuracies in the control point’s coordinate are directly additive to errors inherent in the satellite positioning process. Error corrections derived by the reference station vary rapidly, as the factors propagating position errors are not static over time. This error correction allows for a considerable amount of error of error to be negated, potentially as much as 90 percent.
INTRODUCTION OF GPS
The GPS is developed to enhance positioning procedure. This invention would be a good approach now onwards for those, which uses positioning modules. This module API used at very small amount of consumption of memory and requirements. It works online and with minimum transaction of packets, using basic request and response mode, and all the fruitful requisites for the positioning viz. coordinates (latitude, longitude) and position on Google map is displayed within no time.
The proposed system will aim to automate and eliminate all the drawbacks that the existing system possesses:
- The proposed system will save significant amount of time and effort invested by the other GPS hardware for positioning.
- It consumes low memory
- It can work on cross platforms.
- Gives both coordinates as well as pictorial depiction in such a small execution instance.
This application deals with the same aspects as described above. The application uses Google API for map depiction. Moreover the application composed of two basic modules as follows:
(i) Geolocation API: The Geolocation API is the application-programming interface for the detection of the location of the device on which the code executes. Now the question arises, what it takes as an argument?
The answer is the IP-Address is the main key plays for the detection of the location. Geolocation API is something that is installed on the browser and allows for the permission to access the location through the execution. The request sent is on the basis of the Representational State Transfer (REST) services of the network which is based on the carries provided by the browser (for e.g. HTTP). Further these services enables the authentication so as to provide further a secure access to the location.
(ii) Google API: Google is the giant master when it comes to open source technology. It’s the same aspect that’s been used in this application. It’s uses the data packet that’s been enclosed and sent via carrier and later on the parameters sent are used to implicate the location on the Google map. The location shown is done with the marker. The exactness of the locations approximately accurate in 20m which was the centre idea of this project.
BASIC TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES USED:
Tools And Technologies Used:
- BACKEND- IP-Address, HTTP request
- SOFTWARE USED-TextEdit, and W3Schools HTML editor.
- O.S-Any Operating System (used Macintosh)
- Intel Pentium-IV processor
- 256 MB RAM or higher
- 40 GB HDD or higher
- Microsoft Windows XP or Mac OS X 10.5 or later.
- Browser: IE, Safari, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Opera any of them.
- ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY:
Economical feasibility determines whether there are sufficient benefits in creating to make the cost acceptable, or is the cost of the system too high. As this signifies cost benefit analysis and savings. On the behalf of the cost-benefit analysis, the proposed system is feasible and is economical regarding its pre-assumed cost for making a system. During the economical feasibility test we maintained the balance between the Operational and Economical feasibilities, as the two were the conflicting.
For example the solution that provides the best operational impact for the end-users may also be the most expensive and, therefore, the least economically feasible. We classified the costs of GPS according to the phase in which they occur. As we know that the system development costs are usually one-time costs that will not recur after the project has been completed. For calculating the Development costs we evaluated certain cost categories
- Personnel cost
- Storage cost
- Execution cost
- TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY:
Technical feasibility determines whether the work for the project can be done with the existing equipment, software technology and available personnel. Technical feasibility is concerned with specifying equipment and software that will satisfy the user requirement. This project is feasible on technical remarks also, as the proposed system is more beneficiary in terms of having a sound proof system with new technical components installed on the system. The proposed system can run on any machines supporting Windows And Internet services and works on the best software and hardware that had been used while designing the system.
- BEHAVIOURAL FEASIBILITY:
People are inherently resistant to change and computer has been known to facilitate changes. An estimate should be made of how strong the user is likely to move towards the development of computerized system. These are various levels of users in order to ensure proper authentication and authorization and security of sensitive data of the organization.
HOW IS GPS DIFFERENT FROM EXISTING SYSTEMS?
The application made has all properties same as all other GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM does but it takes an edge over the other when it comes to the complexity aspects go any program. This particular application possesses a very highly compact and short which in-turn proves to be advantageous over other by taking lesser time comparatively for accessing the location and gathering data for the preprocessing before actually displaying the data. This code is used as the combination of two module together with decrease the access time and increase the efficiency. Hence there’s produced a greater level of optimal usage of code skills and the provided API.
Also when it comes to usage of memory when provided to a certain device to be located, it takes a very small significant amount of space for the storage of the application.
It is most convenient to use when it come to detect the location of those devices which are very small in size ad can’t afford to have larger memory, hardly 16MB, inclusive of all consumptions managed into it, at that time one has to be very curious for managing the bits of memory. So it’s compact size enables it to be able to execute on a very small chip having limited memory.
For example, a SIM card used for a phone contains it’s own memory for certain computation and store a limited amount of contacts and text content. It has limited amount of memory using the excessive amount of memory is absurd idea and giving external memory will effect it’s internal architecture, most commonly size (generally speaking), so to avoid that discrepancy in structure, this gives an edge over the other codes for the access of location.
Now the other aspect of the advantage is that, whenever the code is executed, it may be possible for the user not getting the location, but it’ll surely gives the co-ordinates for the GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM i.e, latitude and longitude. Hence both ways it is beneficial.
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM Applications:
- Like the Internet, GPS is an essential element of the global information infrastructure. The free, open, and dependable nature of GPS has led to the development of hundreds of applications affecting every aspect of modern life. GPS technology is now in everything from cell phones and wristwatches to bulldozers, shipping containers, and ATM’s.
- GPS boosts productivity across a wide swath of the economy, to include farming, construction, mining, surveying, package delivery, and logistical supply chain management. Major communications networks, banking systems, financial markets, and power grids depend heavily on GPS for precise time synchronization. Some wireless services cannot operate without it.
- GPS saves lives by preventing transportation accidents, aiding search and rescue efforts, and speeding the delivery of emergency services and disaster relief. GPS is vital to the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) that will enhance flight safety while increasing airspace capacity. GPS also advances scientific aims such as weather forecasting, earthquake monitoring, and environmental protection.
- Finally, GPS remains critical to national security and its applications are integrated into virtually every facet of military operations. Nearly all-new military assets — from vehicles to munitions — come equipped with GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM.
This was the first considerably tricky and important project undertaken by me during my B.Tech course. It was an experience that changed the way I perceived project development. The coding could not be started before the whole system was completely finalized. Even then there were so many changes required and the coding needed to be changed. I attribute this to inadequate information gathering from the user. Though there were many meetings with the user and most of the requirements were gathered, a few misinterpretations of the requirements still crept in.
The project is a classic example for the adage that learning of concepts needs to be supplemented with application of that knowledge. On the whole it was a wonderful experience developing this project and I would have considered my education incomplete without undertaking such a project, which allowed me to apply all that I have learnt.So, that’s was how it all works, and used. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM, find yourself!
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES
- IEEE Java EE web analysis papers
- WIkipedia GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM
- AWS- amazon web services
- SAP labs, India
- Computer Science and Information System groups, BITS Pilani.
- Prof. Armando Fox, University of California, Berkely
- Ioannis G. Baltopoulos, Department of
- Computer Science, Imperial College, London
- Alonso, G., Casati, F., Kuno, H., & Machiraju, V. (2004). Web Services:Concepts, Architectures and Applications. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
- HTTP. (1999). Hypertext Transfer Protocol — HTTP/1.1 from