Introduction to IOT (Internet of Things)-Working, advantage

What is the Internet of Things?

According to the “Introduction to IOT” by Bagha and Medissa, the Internet of Things, or IoT is a dynamic global network infrastructure with self-configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual “things” have identities, physical attributes, and virtual personalities that use intelligent interfaces and are seamlessly integrated into the information network, often communicate data associated with users and their environments. In simple words, IOT is a network of interrelated devices that connect and interact with Other IOT devices and their environment. The IOT devices are embedded with various sensors and software.

The “Things” in IoT usually refer to IoT devices with unique identities that can perform remote sensing, actuating, and monitoring capabilities. IoT devices can exchange data with other connected devices and applications (directly or indirectly), or collect data from other devices and process the data either locally or send the data to centralized servers or cloud-based application back-ends for processing the data, or perform some tasks locally and other tasks within the IoT infrastructure, based on temporal and space constraints (i.e., memory, processing capabilities, communication latencies, and speeds, and deadlines).

Characteristics of IOT

  1. IoT devices have the ability to change and dynamically adapt themselves according to the change in operating conditions, user conditions, or any change in the surrounding environment.
  2. IoT devices or systems are capable of self-configuring, Which allows the IoT devices to work together with synchronization to perform a particular function
  3. IoT devices support various interoperable communication protocols and can communicate with other devices.
  4. Each IoT device has a unique identity and identifier (such as an IP address or URI). Intelligent interfaces for IoT systems that adapt to the context and allow communication with people and environmental surroundings are possible.
  5. IoT devices are typically incorporated into a network, allowing them to communicate and exchange data with other devices and systems. IoT devices can be detected dynamically in the network by other devices and/or the network, and they have the ability to describe themselves to other devices or user applications.

How does IoT work?

An IoT device consists of various smart devices having sensors embedded into them. These sensors collect the data by considering different conditions. These devices store the information and then share this data through a gateway, which acts as a central passage for the data. This shared data is stored on the cloud or a different server.

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Then this cloud or servers work on the data. The data is processed and analyzed to extract important information. Then the instructions are sent to the device based on the result and changes are made accordingly.

Finally, this data is shared with different devices to increase the user experience and to keep them up-to-date so that they can make improvements in the future.

Applications Of IoT

The IoT has numerous applications in a variety of industries. IoT devices are meant to collect and communicate data via the Internet, allowing for process automation, monitoring, and control. Here are some examples of frequent IoT device applications:

  1. Smart Home: IoT devices are often used in smart homes to manage lighting, thermostats, security systems, and appliances. Smart thermostats, smart locks, and smart lighting systems are a few examples.
  2. Healthcare: IoT devices are employed in healthcare for remote patient monitoring, wearable fitness trackers, and even smart drug dispensers. These gadgets can send real-time health data to healthcare providers.
  3. Smart Cities: The IoT is utilized to improve urban infrastructure and services. Smart traffic management, trash management, and public transport systems are examples of applications.
  4. Industrial IoT (IIoT): IoT devices are utilized in industrial settings for asset tracking, predictive maintenance, and process optimization. Sensors and gadgets collect data in order to increase efficiency and decrease downtime.
  5. Agriculture: Agriculture uses IoT sensors and devices to track soil conditions, crop health, and meteorological data. This data assists farmers in optimizing their farming practices.

Advantages of IoT

  1. IoT devices allow automation and customization by which any devices can be customized according to the user’s demand
  2. It provides security and personal protection by assisting with smart home devices.
  3. It saves a lot of time as IoT devices are made automatic.
  4. Because IoT devices connect and communicate with one another and perform a range of activities, it reduces human labour.
  5. IoT can be used in the Automobile, to make it more advanced, cost-effective, and customer-friendly.

Disadvantages of IoT

  1. Using IoT devices can be expensive and time-consuming
  2. It can increase the complexity of the device.
  3. They heavily rely on the Internet and the data they receive, which may affect their performance in the absence of the Internet and the data.
  4. Automation can be the reason for Unemployment. As workers will fail to get the job.
  5. The device will be insecure, As any intruder can access the data from the internet.

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