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Because of the high demand for green and sustainable energy, research on solar energy harvesting has become one of the most popular engineering research topics, particularly on renewable energy. Many research studies are devoted to the design and development of efficient and dependable solar power systems. Solar tracking and control have become one of the most important components of a solar power system for improving and optimising efficiency of solar energy absorption.
This project’s goal is to evaluate the performance of a dual-axis solar tracking system. It is made up of three major structures: the inputs, the controller, and the output. The LDRS provides input, the Arduino serves as the controller, and the servo motor serves as the output. The main controller in this project, the Arduino, receives analogue input from LDRs and converts it to a digital signal using an analog-to-digital (A- D) converter. The controller then sends the signal to the servo motor to determine the position of the solar panel.
- Solar Tracker: – Solar trackers are devices used to orient photovoltaic panels, reflectors, lenses or other optical devices toward the sun. Since the sun’s position in the sky changes with the seasons and the time of day, trackers are used to align the collection system to maximize energy production.
- Dual-axis trackers: Dual-axis trackers have two degrees of freedom that act as axes of rotation. These axes are typically normal to one another. Dual axis trackers allow for optimum solar energy levels due to their ability to follow the sun vertically and horizontally.
- Here we have divide sun position into five areas and those are EAST, WEST, NORTH, SOUTH, CENTER.
- Analog to Digital Converter
- Solar Tracker
- Servo Motors
WORKING OF DUAL AXIS SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM USING ARDUINO
- LDR’S are used as the main light sensors .Two servo motors are fixed to the structure that holds the solar panel. The program of Arduino, Matlab is uploaded to micro controller
- LDR’S sense the amount of sun light falling on them. Four LDR’S are divided into top, bottom, left and right.
- For east-west tracking, the analog values from two top LDR’S are compared and if the top set of LDR’S receive more light ,the vertical servo will move in that direction.
- If the bottom LDR’S receive more light ,the servo moves in that direction.
- For angular deflection of the solar panel, the analog values from two left LDR’S and two right LDR’S are compared .If the left set of LDR’S receive more light than the right set, the horizontal servo will move in that direction.
- If the right set of LDR’S receive more light, the servo moves in that direction.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DUAL AXIS SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM USING ARDUINO
- Propose dual axis solar tracker is cost effective
- Average power gain of solar panel with dual axis tracking system over normal stationary arrangement is upto 40-50%.
- Less power consumption by internal circuit and motors.
- Ability of tracking sun light at any weather.
- Installation is easy and operates automatically.
- Monitoring and Maintenance is required.
- A drastic environmental change cannot be tolerated by the equipment
APPLICATIONS OF DUAL AXIS SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM USING ARDUINO
- It can be used for large and medium scale power generations.
- It can also be used for power generation at remote places.
- It may be used as domestic backup power systems.
- It can be used for solar street lightning system.
- It may be used in water treatment technologies and solar heating.
- Single-axis and dual-axis photovoltaic tracking system, with appropriate control systems, the electrical energy can increase from 22-56%, compared to fixed PV system.
- Combinations of microprocessor- and sensor-based control systems represent the most commonly used control method as well as the most efficient.
- Active tracking systems use electrical drives to move the axis, which can consume a huge amount of electrical energy because of improper control systems. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the power consumption of electrical drives, which can be done by reducing the number of motor movements.
- Sensor-based photovoltaic tracking systems are more expensive because of additional sensor devices, but provide lower tracking error (0.14 ), compared to sensor less photovoltaic tracking systems (0.43-).
- Electric motors used in PV tracking applications are exposed to weather conditions and are therefore designed to withstand strong winds, and high temperatures and humidity.
- The most commonly used electric motor is permanent magnet brushless DC motors as they are easy to maintain.
- Novel innovative tracking systems will include dynamic weather forecasting and cooling of the PV system with wind or water.
The Dual-axis solar power tracking system was set up and tested using MATLAB, and ARDUINO code. It is designed according to the circuit to trap the sun in all directions. It has better efficiency and sustainability to give a better output compared to fixed solar panels.
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