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What is a microprocessor?

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    • A microprocessor is a controlling unit of a microcomputer, fabricated on a small chip capable of performing Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU) operations and communicating with the other devices connected to it.
    • It includes the ALU, Register Arrays and control circuits on a single chip
    • The microprocessor is a general purpose programmable logic device.
    • It is the brain of the computer and it performs all the computational tasks, calculations, data processing etc. inside the computer.
    • In the computers, the most popular type of the processor is the Intel Pentium.

    Features of Microprocessor

    • Low in Cost
    • Generates less heat
    • High speed
    • Consumes low power
    • Portable
    • Small in size
    • Versatile and Reliable

    Special Features of Microprocessor

    1)8086 is a pipelined processor

    •It uses 2 stage pipelining ie Fetch stage that pre-fetches upto 6  bytes of instructions stores them in the queue and Execute  stage that executes these instructions. Pipelining improves the  performance of the processor ie operations are faster.

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    2)8086 uses memory banks

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    •It uses a memory banking system ie the entire data is not  stored sequentially in a single memory of 1 MB but the memory  is divided into 2 Banks of 512KB each. The banks are called  Lower Bank (Even Banks) and Higher banks (or odd bank).

    3)8086 can operate in 2 modes

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    •Minimum mode -> A system with only 1 processor ie 8086

    •Maximum mode -> A system with 8086 and other processors  like 8087-(Math Co-processor), 8089-(IO processor)or multiple  8086 processors.

    4)8086 uses memory segmentation

    •A 16 bit address in an instruction or a 16 bit address in a  register can access a memory location although 8086 has 20  address lines. Here the memory is divided into 16 segments of  2^16 = 65536B = 64KB each is used as Code, Stack, Data and Extra segment.

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    Category: Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering

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