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WHAT IS A SHAPER MACHINE?
A shaper is a machine used for producing flat surfaces on the given workpiece. It can also be used for doing any type of machining operations but with little difficulty. The shaper cuts the metal by the reciprocating motion of the tool-carrying ram. The first metal working shaper was developed by James Nasmyth in the year 1936
A shaper is a type of machine tool that uses the linear relative motion
between the workpiece and a single-point cutting tool to machine a linear tool path. Its cut is analogous to that of a lathe, except that it is linear instead of helical. A shaper is analogous to a planer but smaller and with the cutter riding a ram that moves above a stationary workpiece, rather than the entire workpiece moving beneath the cutter. The ram is moved back and forth typically by a crank inside the column; hydraulically actuated shapers also exist.
FOUNDATION OF SHAPER MACHINE
A shaper operates by moving a hardened cutting tool backward and forwards across the workpiece. On the return stroke of the ram, the tool is lifted clear of the workpiece, reducing the cutting action to one direction only.
The workpiece mounts on a rigid, box-shaped table in front of the machine. The height of the table can be adjusted to suit this workpiece, and the table can traverse sideways underneath the reciprocating tool, which is mounted on the ram. Table motion may be controlled manually, but is usually advanced by an automatic feed mechanism acting on the feed screw. The ram slides back and forth above the work. At the front end of the ram is a vertical tool slide that may be adjusted to either side of the vertical plane along the stroke axis. This tool-slide holds the clapper box and tool post, from which the tool can be positioned to cut a straight, flat surface on the top of the workpiece.
WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF SHAPER MACHINES?
- Based on the type of mechanism employed for the movement of the cutting tool i.e. tool carrying ram the shapers are classified into three types
a. Crank type
b. Gear type
c. Hydraulic type
- According to the position and movement of the ram the shapers are classified into three types
a. Horizontal type
b. Vertical type
c. Travelling head type
- Shapers are classified into two types based on the design of the work table
a. Standard shaper
b. Universal shaper
- Based on the type of cutting stroke employed these are classified into
a. Push type
b. Draw type
INVENTION OF SHAPER MACHINE
Roe (1916) credits James Nasmyth with the invention of the shaper in 1836. Shapers were very common in industrial production from the mid-19th century through the mid-20th. In current industrial practice, shapers have been largely superseded by other machine tools (especially of the CNC type), including milling machines, grinding machines, and broaching machines. But the basic function of a shaper is still sound; tooling for them is minimal and very cheap to reproduce; and they are simple and robust in construction, making their repair and upkeep easily achievable. Thus they are still popular in many machine shops, from jobbing shops or repair shops to tool and die shops, where only one or a few pieces are required to be produced and the alternative methods are cost- or tooling-intensive. They also have considerable retro appeal too many hobbyist machinists, who are happy to obtain a used shaper or, in some cases, even to build a new one from scratch.
Before the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, hand tools were used to cut and shape materials for the production of goods such as cooking utensils, wagons, ships, furniture, and other products. After the advent of the steam engine, material goods were produced by power-driven machines that could only be manufactured by machine tools. Machine tools (capable of producing dimensionally accurate parts in large quantities) and jigs and fixtures (for holding the work and guiding the tool) were the indispensable innovations that made mass production and interchangeable realities in the 19th century
The most common use is to machine straight, flat surfaces but with ingenuity and some accessories a wide range of work can be done. Other examples of its use are:
- Keyways in the boss of a pulley or gear can be machined without resorting to a dedicated broaching
- Dovetail slides
- Internal spines
- Keyway cutting in blind holes
BASIC SHAPER MACHINE COMPONENTS
It is consist of many components such as:
- Tool post (or) Tool head
- Tool feed handle
- Adjustable sliding support
- Clapper Box
- Graduated collar
- Ram clamping nut
- Scale indictor
- Clutch handle
- Cross traverse handle
- The project performs well under all conditions and enables to improve the operational efficiency. It also meets all the reqirements specified by the user.
- This project has been a great learning process for us to climb the greater heights of mechanical world. The experience that we have earned from this project will surely stand in good stead in my future.
- Once again we thank whole – heartedly all those who helped to complete the project work.
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