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Hyperloop is a completely new mode of fastest transportation. Hyperloop is firstly proposed by Elon musk and a team of engineers from Tesla Motors and the Space Exploration Technologies Corporation in August 2013. The concept of hyperloop includes traveling people from one place to another place in a capsule which is propelling at a very high speed. We can also call hyperloop as a solar powered transportation system and it is an alternative of high-speed train. Basically, hyperloop is magnetically levitated train which runs inside a long tube or pipe.
It consists of low-pressure tube with capsule that is transported at both low and high speeds. It is driven by linear induction motor and compressor. It includes 28 passenger pods. For propulsion, magnetic accelerators will be planted along the length of the tube, propelling the pods forward. The tubes would house a low-pressure environment, surrounding the pod with a cushion of air that permits the pod to move safely at such high speeds, like a puck gliding over an air hockey table. Given the tight quarters in the tube, pressure buildup in front of the pod could be a problem. The tube needs a system to keep air from building up in this way.
Musk’s design recommends an air compressor on the front of the pod that will move air from the front to the tail, keeping it aloft and preventing pressure building up due to air displacement. A one-way trip on the Hyperloop is projected to
take about 35 minutes (for comparison, traveling the same distance by car takes roughly six hours.) Passengers may enter and exit Hyperloop at stations located either at the ends of the tube, or branches along the tube length.
Hyperloop concept was invented and designed in 1812 by the British Mechanical Engineer George Wenger and later on polished by various people like George Medhurst in 1827 and Alfred Ely Beach in 1869.
Concepts for high-speed trains in vacuum or evacuated tubes can be traced back as far as 1909, when rocket pioneer Robert H. Goddard proposed high-speed passenger-carrying pods traveling through evacuated tubes.
Bachelet introduced the core idea behind magnetically levitating trains as early as 1910. Over the years these ideas have been further renamed, for instance by the Rand Corporation in 1972 with their “Very HighSpeed Transport System”. The concept of Hyperloop is now developed and redesigned by the billionaire Elon Musk in 2012. Hyperloop is in some countries a registered trademark of the Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) for the highspeed transportation of passengers and goods in partially evacuated tubes. Earlier, in all types of transportation mode, we have encountered many accidents, cost issues, comfort issues, affordability, conservation issues and environmental issues. Hyperloop confront all the above point issues to provide better way to future with help of modern science and engineering solutions.
Working Principle of Hyperloop One
Hyperloop is based on a principle of magnetic levitation. The principle of magnetic levitation is that a vehicle can be suspended and propelled on a guidance track made with magnets. The vehicle on top of the track may be propelled with the help of a linear induction motor.
Working of hyperloop system is based on magnetic levitation principle. As we know that the passenger pad travel through low pressure tube which is pylon- supported tube.
In hyperloop system an air compressor fan is fitted on front side of pod which sucks the air. It transfers high pressure air front side to the rear side of capsule (pod) and it propel the pod. It creates the air cushion around the pod, so that the pod is suspended in air within the tube.
On the basis of magnetic levitation principle, the pod will be propelled by the linear induction motor. By the linear induction motor the capsule send from one place to another place to a subsonic velocity that is slower than the speed of sound.
The pod will be self-powered. There is solar panel fitted on top of the tube. By this solar panel there is enough energy is stored in battery packs to operate at night and in cloudy weather for some periods. The energy is also is stored in the form of compressed air.
The air between the capsule acts as cushions to prevent two capsules from colliding within the tube.
In above figure it shown that the air through the compressor is send to a bypass nozzle at the rear end of the capsule. If capsule cover too much area of the tube then, the air is not flow around the capsule and ultimately the entire column of air in the tube is being pushed ahead of the capsule and because of this there is friction between the air and tube walls is increases tremendously. Therefore to avoid this problem the compressor is fitted at the front of the capsule through which the air is flow which will not flow around the capsule and send it to bypass nozzle.
CONSTRUCTION FEATURES OF HYPERLOOP ONE
The tube is made of steel. There are two tubes which are welded together side by side configuration to allow the capsules travel in both directions. The tube will be supported by pillars. Solar panel arrays are provided on top of the tubes for the purpose of power to the system.
These tubes were theoretically meant to have vacuum inside them which should remove any resistance offered by air in direction where train is traveling, but still practically vacuum cannot be achieved for such a long track. Thus, capsule consist of very low-pressure air which offers very negligible resistance.
But low pressure air doesn’t solve the problem wholly. While capsule is traveling the air ahead of it get compressed and increase pressure offering resistance to capsule giving rise to Kantrowitz limit, which can eventually stop the train but this problem was solved by adding compressor fan on bow(front) of train. The pressure in the tube is 100pa (equivalent to flying above 150,000 feet altitude). Pylons are placed every 30 m to support the tube.
A specifically designed cleaning and boring machine will make it possible to surface finish the inside of the tube and welded joints for a better gliding surface. In addition, safety emergency exits and pressurization ports will be added in key locations along the length of the tube.
A tube wall thickness between 20 to 23 mm is necessary to provide sufficient strength for the load cases considered in this study. These cases included, but were not limited to, pressure differential, bending and buckling between pillars, loading due to the capsule weight and acceleration, as well as seismic considerations.
In order to keep cost to a minimum, a uniform thickness steel tube reinforced with stringers was selected as the material of choice for the inner diameter tube. Tube sections would be pre-fabricated and installed between pillar supports spaced 100 ft (30 m) on average, varying slightly depending on location. This relatively short span allows keeping tube material cost and deflection to a minimum.
The cost of the tube is expected to be less than $650 million USD, including pre-fabricated tube sections with stringer reinforcements and emergency exits.
For increasing speed and efficiency of capsules certain geometrical changes are brought in capsule design by minimizing frontal surface area which makes it more comfortable for passengers.
The vehicle is streamlined to reduce drag. Interior design was highly concentrated for comfort of passengers. The seats are design as to nullify high speed acceleration discomfort produced during the travel. Entertainment of passengers are kept in mind and modern accessories are equipped to suffice also passengers will be provided with access to landscape scenery.
The maximum width is 1.35 m and maximum height is 1.10 m. With rounded corners, this is equivalent to a 1.4 m^2 frontal area, not including any propulsion or suspension components.
The aerodynamic power requirements at 700 mph (1,130 kph) is around only 100k with a drag force of only 320 N, or about the same force as the weight of one oversized checked bag at the airport. The doors on each side will open in a gullwing (or possibly sliding) manner to allow easy access during loading and unloading. The luggage compartment will be at the front or rear of the capsule.
The overall structure weight is expected to be near
3,100 kg including the luggage compartments and door mechanism. The overall
cost of the structure including manufacturing is targeted to be no more than
Assuming an average departure time of 2 minutes between capsules, a minimum of 28 passengers per capsule are required to meet 840 passengers per hour. It is possible to further increase the Hyperloop capacity by reducing the time between departures.
The current baseline requires up to 40 capsules in activity during rush hour, 6 of which are at the terminals for loading and unloading of the passengers in approximately 5 minutes. In order to optimize the capsule speed and performance, the frontal area has been minimized for size while maintaining passenger comfort.
The vehicle is streamlined to reduce drag and features a
compressor at the leading face to ingest oncoming air for levitation and to a
lesser extent propulsion. Aerodynamic simulations have demonstrated the
validity of this ‘compressor within a tube’ concept.
Since need of vacuum was not sufficed in tube, capsule travelling in low pressure tube accumulates air on its front side, which is further compressed by motion of capsule, this compressed air will resist motion of capsule decreasing its velocity, forming a choke inside the tube and eventually stopping it.
Thus, hyperloop demands new innovation to solve this problem known as Kantrowitz limit. Compressor fans were introduced to nullify effect of Kantrowitz limit.
Compressor fans are installed on front of capsules. These fans suck the accumulated compressed air from front of train and exhale it to air bearings. Thus, resistance is removed and no further choking because of Kantrowitz limit is caused.
One important feature of the capsule is the onboard
compressor, which serves two purposes. This system allows the capsule to
traverse the relatively narrow tube without choking flow that travels between
the capsule and the tube walls (resulting in a build-up of air mass in front of
the capsule and increasing the drag) by compressing air that is bypassed
through the capsule. It also supplies air to air bearings that support the
weight of the capsule throughout the
Friction was another major hurdle of hyperloop, which had only one solution to remove any surface contact between capsule and tube i.e. capsule should be levitating i.e. it should float in air.
Air bearings are installed on surface of capsules, the air inhaled by front of capsule’s compressor fan is exhaled by air bearing providing it hovering and levitation.
Air bearing also provide suspension to capsules so traveling is more smooth in hyperloop.
As the design process began, the Drexel team realized in order to excel in the competition, they needed to overcome a few obstacles. Drawing on the work of Elon Musk’s original vision, the team explored the intriguing possibilities of leveraging air bearings to facilitate levitation for the POD.
Musk’s original concept for the Hyperloop consisted of a
fleet of capsules traveling at high speeds between Los Angeles and San
Francisco through a low- pressure tube. The capsules themselves would be
supported on a cushion of air, created by internal pressurization and
aerodynamic lift. The essential
technology for the realization of that vision was the air bearing.
Finally, hyperloop requires a propelling machine. And thus, linear induction motor is used in hyperloop, the same motor used in tesla cars which in hyperloop can produce velocity of 20000 meter per second. The moving motor element (rotor) will be located on the vehicle for weight savings and power requirements while the tube will incorporate the stationary motor element (stator) which powers the vehicle.
The overall propulsion system weight attached to the capsule is expected to be near 2,900 lb (1,300 kg) including the support and emergency braking system. The overall cost of the system is targeted to be no more than $125,000. This brings the total capsule weight near 33,000 lb (15,000 kg) including passenger and luggage weight. The overall propulsion system weight attached to the capsule is expected to be near 3,500 lb (1,600 kg) including the support and emergency braking system. The overall cost of the system is targeted to be no more than $150,000. this brings the total capsule weight near 57,000 lb (26,000) kg including passenger, luggage, and vehicle weight.
To accelerate and decelerate the capsule the linear
induction motor is used in hyperloop system. It provides some advantages over a
permanent magnet motor. To accelerate the capsules there is linear accelerators
are constructed on a length of the tube. Stators are placed on the capsules to
transfer momentum to the capsules via the linear accelerators.
Suspending the capsule within the tube presents a substantial technical challenge due to transonic cruising velocities. Conventional wheel and axle systems become impractical at high speed due frictional losses and dynamic instability. A viable technical solution is magnetic levitation; however the cost associated with material and construction is prohibitive. An alternative to these conventional options is an air bearing suspension. Air bearings offer stability and extremely low drag at a feasible cost by exploiting the ambient atmosphere in the tube.
Air bearing suspension offers stability and extremely low drag at a feasible cost. A stiff air bearing suspension is superb for reliability and safety. When there is a gap between ski and tube walls is high then it shows the nonlinear reaction and which results in large restoring pressure.
Externally pressurized and aerodynamic air bearings are well suited for the Hyperloop due to exceptionally high stiffness, which is required to maintain stability at high speeds. When the gap height between a ski and the tube wall is reduced, the flow field in the gap exhibits a highly non-linear reaction resulting in large restoring pressures. The increased pressure pushes the ski away from the wall, allowing it to return to its nominal ride height. While a stiff air bearing suspension is superb for reliability and safety, it could create considerable discomfort for passengers onboard. To account for this, each ski is integrated into an independent mechanical suspension, ensuring a smooth ride for passengers. The capsule may also include traditional deployable wheels similar to aircraft landing gear for ease of movement at speeds under 100 mph (160 kph) and as a component of the overall safety system.
ADVANTAGES OF HYPERLOOP ONE :
- It saves the travelling time.
- There is no problem of traffic.
- It is powered by the solar panel.
- It can travel in any kind of weather.
- Cost of hyperloop is low.
- Not disruptive to those along the route.
- More convenient.
- Resistance to earthquake.
- Pollution Free
- Light Weight
- Weight ¼ for the Same Strength
- Corrosion & Chemical Resistance
- Excellent Elastic Properties
- Extremely Strong
- High Speed of 760mph
DISADVANTAGES OF HYPERLOOP ONE :
- Turning will be critical.
- Less movable space for passenger.
- High speed might cause dizziness in some passenger.
- Punctured tunnel could cause shockwaves.
- High Cost of Fabrication.
- Complex repair procedure.
- Compressible strength not dependable.
PRESENT WORK ON HYPERLOOP ONE
Presently the idea of hyperloop was proposed for route between San Francisco, California and Los Angeles in 35 minutes. This requirement tends to size other portions of the system. Given the performance specification of the Hyperloop, a route has been devised to satisfy this design requirement. The Hyperloop route should be based on several considerations, including:
- Maintaining the tube as closely as possible to existing rights of way.
- Limiting the maximum capsule speed to 760 mph (1,220 kph) for aerodynamic consideration.
- Limiting accelerations on the passengers to 0.5g.
- Optimizing locations of the linear motor tube sections driving the capsules.
- Local geographical constraints, including location of urban areas, mountain ranges, reservoirs, national parks, roads, railroads, airports, etc. The route must respect existing structures.
For aerodynamic efficiency, the speed of a capsule in the Hyperloop is typically:
- 300 mph (480kmph) where local geography necessitates a tube bend radii < 1.0 mile (1.6 km)
- 760 mph (1220 kmph) where local geography necessitates a tube bend radii > 3.0 mile (4.8 km) or where local geography permits a straight tube.
These bend radii have been calculated so that the passenger does not experience inertial accelerations that exceed 0.5g. This is deemed the maximum inertial acceleration that can be comfortably sustained by humans for short periods. To further reduce the inertial acceleration experienced by passengers, the capsule and/or tube will incorporate a mechanism that will allow a degree of ‘banking’. The Hyperloop route was created by the authors using Google Earth.
Hyperloop is a newborn technology since it is nothing like anything the design for everything inside it is like invented for even a smaller entity. Thus, Technology welcomes further development for inventors.
Hyperloop also conducted a worldwide competition for building it which would award by building hyperloop in winning nation.
Hyperloop is considered an open source transportation concept. The authors encourage all members of the community to contribute to the Hyperloop design process. Iteration of the design by various individuals and groups can help bring Hyperloop from an idea to a reality.
The inventors recognize the need for additional work, including but not limited to:
- More expansion on the control mechanism for Hyperloop capsules, including attitude thruster or control moment gyros.
- Detailed station designs with loading and unloading of both passenger and passenger plus vehicle versions of the Hyperloop capsules.
- Trades comparing the costs and benefits of Hyperloop with more conventional magnetic levitation systems.
- Sub-scale testing based on a further optimized design to demonstrate the physics of Hyperloop.
The Train of future is reviewed in this paper. Hyperloop has two versions namely passenger only and passenger plus vehicle hyperloop. This technology can reduce travel time between Los Angeles and San Francisco up till 35 minutes. The price of one way trip would be as less as $20. Hyperloop is much cheaper compared to railway between Los Angeles and San Francisco.
On other hand passenger plus vehicle version would just cost more 25%. This version would be capable of transporting passengers, vehicles, freight, etc. this version is 11% more cheaper than proposed by rail system between Los Angeles and San Francisco. Furthermore the hyperloop is at development stage in future the price will be much lower than present price. A high speed transportation system known as Hyperloop has been developed in this report. Hyperloop transportation system can be used over the conventional modes of transportation that are rail, road, water and air.
At very high speed it provides better comfort and cost is also low. By reducing the pressure of the air in the tube which reduces simple air drag and enables the capsule to move faster than through a tube at atmospheric pressure. As it has number of advantages it will very help full for transport public as well as goods in a very short period of time (at a top speed of 1220 kmph) and also in lower cost. It is a new concept so there is some future work will be required for development of this project .Conventional means of transportation (road, water, air, and rail) tend to be some mix-off expensive, slow, and environmentally harmful. Road travel is particularly problematic, given carbon emissions and the fluctuating price of oil.
As the environmental dangers of energy consumption continue to worsen, mass transit. Rail travel is relatively energy efficient and offers the most environmentally friendly option, but is too slow and expensive to be massively adopted. An additional passenger plus transport version of the Hyperloop has been created that is only 25% higher in cost than the passenger only version. This version would be capable of transporting passengers, vehicles, freight, etc.
The passenger plus vehicle version of the Hyperloop is less than 11% of the cost of the proposed passenger only high speed rail system between Los Angeles and San Francisco. Additional technological developments and further optimization could likely reduce this price.
- Musk, Elon (August 12, 2013). “Hyperloop” Tesla. Retrieved August 13, 2013
- A. Kantrowitz, “Proceeding of International Conference of lasers ‘87” F. J. Duarte, Ed. (STS Press, Mc Lean, VA, 1988).
- “Hyperloop One”. Hyperloop One. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Chin, Jeffrey C.; Gray, Justin S.; Jones, Scott M.; Berton, Jeffrey J. (January 2015). “Open source conceptual design for Hyperloop passenger pod”. 56th AIAA/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference. January 5–9, 2015. Kissimmee, Florida.
- Ahmed Hodaib, Samar, et al, international journal of mechanical, aerospace, industrial, mechatronics and manufacturing engineering Vol:10 No:5, (May 2016).
- Paper by Mark Sakowski, “The Next Contender in High Speed Transport Elon Musks Hyperloop”, 2016.
- N. Kayela, editor of scientific and technical department, “Hyperloop: A Fifth Mode of Transportation”, 2014.
- Mohammed Imran, international journal of engineering research, 2016
- Musk, Elon (August 12, 2013). “Hyperloop Alpha”(PDF). SpaceX. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
- Compressor:https://patrickenewman.files.wordpress.com/2016/03/compress oriso.png
- Operating principle of hyperloop http://webjapan.org/kidsweb/hitech/maglev/images/004.jpg
- IEEE Journals
- IJERT journals.